Parameters That Influence the Position of the Facial Gingival Margin on Maxillary Anterior Teeth

Academic Article


  • The free gingival margin in the maxillary anterior teeth plays a key role in the esthetics of the patient's smile. The upper anterior teeth and their associated gingiva frame the smile of the patient and compliment the esthetic appearance of the face. The free gingival margin is a part of the dentogingival complex, with the underlying anatomy to define its location. Other parameters and conditions that influence the final location of free gingival margin are described, such as alveolar crest position, periodontal biotype, altered passive eruption, and malpositioned teeth. Moreover, edentulous areas associated with congenitally missing lateral incisors, peg laterals, and teeth lost due to trauma can change the location of the free gingival margin and affect which site development clinical techniques are to be implemented to restore it back to normal. A comprehensive periodontal evaluation is of utmost importance in detecting periodontal disease and recording the position of the free gingival margin. Annual reassessment of the free gingival margin can lead to treatment decisions that improve the therapeutic outcomes. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.
  • Published In

    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Vassilopoulos PJ; Geurs NC; Geisinger ML
  • Start Page

  • 37
  • End Page

  • 48
  • Volume

  • 19
  • Issue

  • 1