Risk factors for community acquired pediatric urinary tract infection with extended-spectrum-β-lactamase Escherichia coli - A case-control study

Academic Article


  • Introduction: Community-acquired (CA) infections caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli urinary tract infections (UTI) have become increasingly prevalent, posing a serious threat to public health. Risk factors for ESBL UTI have not been extensively studied in the pediatric population. We report findings from a case control study to identify risk factors for CA ESBL-producing E. coli UTI in children. Materials and method: A cohort of children with CA ESBL Escherichia coli UTI evaluated at a tertiary referral hospital from January 2014 through April 2021, were matched 1:3 with control group of non-ESBL CA E. coli UTI based on age at first episode of non-ESBL UTI. To identify potential risk factors for ESBL E. coli UTI, conditional logistic regression model was utilized accounting for age matching. Univariate models were fitted for each clinical risk factor. Factors found to be significantly associated with ESBL UTI were simultaneously included in a single model to check for associations adjusted for all other factors. Results: On conditional multivariate analyses for univariate testing, male sex (P = 0.021), history of Urology care (P = 0.001), and antibiotic treatment within 30 days prior to positive culture (P = 0.004) were identified as independent risk factors for CA ESBL E. coli UTI. Comorbidity scores were assigned to each patient according to pediatric comorbidity index (PCI); children with ESBL UTI were more likely to have higher morbidity risk than non-ESBL UTI children (P < 0.001). From the logistic model, the higher the morbidity scores, the more likely children will have CA ESBL UTI (P < 0.001). Discussion: Identifying risk factors for ESBL-producing E. coli UTI in children is important because of limited therapeutic options. This knowledge is essential for clinical decision making and to develop intervention strategies to reduce disease burden. Our study found that although females have an increased predisposition to UTIs, we observed that the male sex is an independent risk factor for ESBL E. coli UTI. This finding warrants further investigation to determine underlying cause. Because of the retrospective design of the study, collection of data from a single center, and differences in characteristics between patient populations, treatments, and prescribing patterns in the community, this study may not be generalizable. Conclusions: Findings from our case-control study suggest that the male sex, history of Urology care, and previous antibiotic exposure are independent risk factors for CA ESBL-GNB UTI. Children with ESBL E. coli UTI are more likely to have longer admission duration and higher comorbidity index. [Table presented]
  • Published In

    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Collingwood JD; Wang L; Aban IB; Yarbrough AH; Boppana SB; Dangle PP
  • Start Page

  • 129.e1
  • End Page

  • 129.e7
  • Volume

  • 19
  • Issue

  • 1