A local tumor microenvironment acquired super-enhancer induces an oncogenic driver in colorectal carcinoma.

Academic Article


  • Tumors exhibit enhancer reprogramming compared to normal tissue. The etiology is largely attributed to cell-intrinsic genomic alterations. Here, using freshly resected primary CRC tumors and patient-matched adjacent normal colon, we find divergent epigenetic landscapes between CRC tumors and cell lines. Intriguingly, this phenomenon extends to highly recurrent aberrant super-enhancers gained in CRC over normal. We find one such super-enhancer activated in epithelial cancer cells due to surrounding inflammation in the tumor microenvironment. We restore this super-enhancer and its expressed gene, PDZK1IP1, following treatment with cytokines or xenotransplantation into nude mice, thus demonstrating cell-extrinsic etiology. We demonstrate mechanistically that PDZK1IP1 enhances the reductive capacity CRC cancer cells via the pentose phosphate pathway. We show this activation enables efficient growth under oxidative conditions, challenging the previous notion that PDZK1IP1 acts as a tumor suppressor in CRC. Collectively, these observations highlight the significance of epigenomic profiling on primary specimens.
  • Authors

    Published In


  • Animals, Carcinogenesis, Cell Line, Tumor, Cell Proliferation, Colorectal Neoplasms, Cytokines, Enhancer Elements, Genetic, Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic, Mice, Mice, Nude, Tumor Microenvironment
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Pubmed Id

  • 22194604
  • Author List

  • Zhou RW; Xu J; Martin TC; Zachem AL; He J; Ozturk S; Demircioglu D; Bansal A; Trotta AP; Giotti B
  • Start Page

  • 6041
  • Volume

  • 13
  • Issue

  • 1