A longitudinal study of social, religious, and spiritual capital and physical and emotional functioning in a national sample of African–Americans

Academic Article


  • The present study builds on prior research by examining the moderating relationships between different types of capital on physical functioning, emotional functioning, and depressive symptoms using a 2.5-year longitudinal design with a national sample of African–American adults. Results indicated a significant T1 social capital × T1 religious capital interaction such that among low T1 religious capital participants, those with high T1 social capital had lower T2 physical functioning than those with lower T1 social capital. There was also a marginally significant T1 social capital × T1 spiritual capital interaction suggesting that among low T1 spiritual capital participants, those with higher T1 social capital reported a decline in depressive symptoms compared to those with lower T1 social capital. Future research and implications for intervention and policy development are discussed.
  • Published In

    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Clark EM; Ma L; Williams BR; Ghosh D; Park CL; Schulz E; Woodard N; Knott CL