This chapter offers a state-of-the-art summary of advances in human deception detection theory and research, and provides diverse examples of human-to-human deception. With regard to deception detection, findings regarding prevalence and motives have a number of important implications. Research on deception motives clearly documents that lying is not a random event, but is instead somewhat predictable. Meta-analyses of deception detection training find that while training produces significant improvement over no-training controls, that improvement amounts to an improvement from 54% accuracy to only 58 or 59% accuracy. Among the most important practical implications of deception research is the idea that presuming that others are communicating honestly and in a good faith is a good thing most of the time.