Introduction: The United States Preventive Services Taskforce (USPSTF) recently released recommendations for statin therapy eligibility for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We report the proportion and the absolute number of US adults who would be eligible for statin therapy under these recommendations and compare them with the previously published 2018 American Heart Association (AHA)/ American College of Cardiology (ACC)/ Multisociety (MS) Cholesterol guidelines. Methods: We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2017–2020 of adults aged 40–75 years without prevalent self-reported atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol <190 mg/dL. The 2022 USPSTF recommends statin therapy for primary prevention in those with a 10-year ASCVD risk of ≥10% and ≥ 1 CVD risk factor (diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, hypertension, or smoking). The 2018 AHA/ ACC/ MS Cholesterol guideline recommends considering statin therapy for primary prevention for those with diabetes mellitus, or 10-year ASCVD risk ≥20% or 10-year ASCVD risk 7.5 to <20% after accounting for risk-enhancers and shared decision making. Survey recommended weights were used to project these proportions to national estimates. Results: Among 1799 participants eligible for this study, the weighted mean age was 56.0 ± 0.5 years, with 53.0% women (95% confidence interval [CI] 49.7, 56.3), and 10.6% self-reported NH Black individuals (95% CI 7.7, 14.3). The weighted mean 10-year ASCVD risk was 9.6 ± 0.3%. The 2022 USPSTF recommendations and the 2018 AHA/ ACC/ MS Cholesterol guidelines indicated eligibility for statin therapy in 31.8% (95% CI 28.6, 35.1) and 46.8% (95% CI 43.0, 50.5) adults, respectively. These represent 33.7 million (95% CI 30.4, 37.2) and 49.7 million (95% CI 45.7, 53.7) adults, respectively. For those with diabetes mellitus, 2022 USPSTF recommended statin therapy in 63.0% (95% CI 52.1, 72.7) adults as compared with all adults with diabetes aged 40–75 years under the 2018 AHA/ ACC/ MS Cholesterol guidelines. Conclusion: In this analysis of the nationally representative US population from 2017 to 2020, approximately 15% (~16.0 million) fewer adults were eligible for statin therapy for primary prevention under the 2022 USPSTF recommendations as compared to the 2018 AHA/ ACC/ MS Cholesterol guideline.