Progress with RNA Interference for the Treatment of Primary Hyperoxaluria

Academic Article


  • Over the last few years, US Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs using RNA interference have come to the market. Many have treated liver-specific diseases utilizing N-acetyl galactosamine conjugation because of its effective delivery and limited off-target effects. The autosomal recessive disorder primary hyperoxaluria, specifically type 1, has benefited from these developments. Primary hyperoxaluria arises from mutations in the enzymes involved in endogenous oxalate synthesis. The severity of disease varies but can result in kidney failure and systemic oxalosis. Until recently, the treatment options were limited and focused primarily on supportive treatments, pyridoxine use in a subset of patients with primary hyperoxaluria type 1, and liver-kidney transplants in those who progressed to kidney failure. Two genes have been targeted with RNA interference; lumasiran targets glycolate oxidase and nedosiran targets lactate dehydrogenase A. Lumasiran was recently approved in the treatment of primary hyperoxaluria type 1 and nedosiran is in the approval process. Unfortunately, despite initial hopes that nedosiran may also be a treatment option for primary hyperoxaluria types 2 and 3, initial data suggest otherwise. The use of RNA interference liver-specific targeting for the treatment of primary hyperoxaluria type 1 will likely transform the natural history of the disease.
  • Authors

    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Pubmed Id

  • 28432874
  • Author List

  • Sawyer K; Leahy S; Wood KD
  • Start Page

  • 437
  • End Page

  • 441
  • Volume

  • 36
  • Issue

  • 4