Community-Level Social Determinants of Health and Well-Child Visits Among Alabama Medicaid Enrollees

Academic Article


  • Well-child visits focus on health promotion and disease detection and are critical to the appropriate provision of care. Evidence has shown that participation in well-child visits is associated with various patient-level factors; however, there has been an increasing focus on the influence of community-level social determinants of health (SDoH). This study explored associations between well-child visits and community-level SDoH at the census tract level among children enrolled in Alabama Medicaid. Through this analysis, it is possible to understand the distribution of care among this underserved population in different geographic settings, thus identifying potential disparities and areas for targeted intervention. Using administrative data from 2015 to 2017 enrollees in Alabama Medicaid that have been geographically linked to information on urbanicity and poverty, logistic regressions (both in total and stratified by age group) were estimated with separate community-level urbanicity, poverty variables, and individual characteristics. The regressions were repeated using a combined urbanicity/poverty variable. Looking at urbanicity and poverty together, with the exception of the least urban areas, it was those living in census tracts where there was discordance in urbanicity and poverty that had the highest likelihood of receiving well-child visits compared with those in census tracts classified as medium poverty (all urbanicity levels). There is a positive effect for Medicaid enrollees in the middle tertile of urbanicity in areas of low and high poverty and in wealthier more urban areas. If poverty and urbanicity were explored separately, some of the nuances would not have been apparent.
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    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Brisendine AE; Sharma P; Liu Y; McDougal J; Becker D; Nghiem VT; Sen B
  • Start Page

  • 209
  • End Page

  • 217
  • Volume

  • 25
  • Issue

  • 2