Central neurocytomas (CNs) are uncommon intraventricular tumors, and their rarity renders the risk-to-benefit profile of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) unknown. The aim of this multicenter, retrospective cohort study was to evaluate the outcomes of SRS for CNs and identify predictive factors.
The authors retrospectively analyzed a cohort of patients with CNs treated with SRS at 10 centers between 1994 and 2018. Tumor recurrences were classified as local or distant. Adverse radiation effects (AREs) and the need for a CSF shunt were also evaluated.
The study cohort comprised 60 patients (median age 30 years), 92% of whom had undergone prior resection or biopsy and 8% received their diagnosis based on imaging alone. The median tumor volume and margin dose were 5.9 cm3 and 13 Gy, respectively. After a median clinical follow-up of 61 months, post-SRS tumor recurrence occurred in 8 patients (13%). The 5- and 10-year local tumor control rates were 93% and 87%, respectively. The 5- and 10-year progression-free survival rates were 89% and 80%, respectively. AREs were observed in 4 patients (7%), but only 1 was symptomatic (2%). Two patients underwent post-SRS tumor resection (3%). Prior radiotherapy was a predictor of distant tumor recurrence (p = 0.044). Larger tumor volume was associated with pre-SRS shunt surgery (p = 0.022).
Treatment of appropriately selected CNs with SRS achieves good tumor control rates with a reasonable complication profile. Distant tumor recurrence and dissemination were observed in a small proportion of patients, which underscores the importance of close post-SRS surveillance of CN patients. Patients with larger CNs are more likely to require shunt surgery before SRS.