AIM: To molecularly characterize the tumor microenvironment and evaluate immunologic parameters in canine glioma patients before and after treatment with oncolytic human IL-12-expressing herpes simplex virus (M032) and in treatment naïve canine gliomas. METHODS: We assessed pet dogs with sporadically occurring gliomas enrolled in Stage 1 of a veterinary clinical trial that was designed to establish the safety of intratumoral oncoviral therapy with M032, a genetically modified oncolytic herpes simplex virus. Specimens from dogs in the trial and dogs not enrolled in the trial were evaluated with immunohistochemistry, NanoString, Luminex cytokine profiling, and multi-parameter flow cytometry. RESULTS: Treatment-naive canine glioma microenvironment had enrichment of Iba1 positive macrophages and minimal numbers of T and B cells, consistent with previous studies identifying these tumors as immunologically "cold". NanoString mRNA profiling revealed enrichment for tumor intrinsic pathways consistent with suppression of tumor-specific immunity and support of tumor progression. Oncolytic viral treatment induced an intratumoral mRNA transcription signature of tumor-specific immune responses in 83% (5/6) of canine glioma patients. Changes included mRNA signatures corresponding with interferon signaling, lymphoid and myeloid cell activation, recruitment, and T and B cell immunity. Multiplexed protein analysis identified a subset of oligodendroglioma subjects with increased concentrations of IL-2, IL-7, IL-6, IL-10, IL-15, TNFα, GM-CSF between 14 and 28 days after treatment, with evidence of CD4+ T cell activation and modulation of IL-4 and IFNγ production in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells isolated from peripheral blood. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that M032 modulates the tumor-immune microenvironment in the canine glioma model.