An Epidemiologic Analysis of Associations between County-level Per Capita Income, Unemployment Rate, and COVID‐19 Vaccination Rates in the United States

Academic Article


  • The purpose of this longitudinal study was to examine associations between per capita income, unemployment rates, and COVID‐19 vaccination rates at the county‐level across the United States (U.S.), as well as to identify the interaction effects between county‐level per capita income, unemployment rates, and racial/ethnic composition on COVID‐19 vaccination rates. All counties in the U.S. that reported COVID‐19 vaccination rates from January 2021 to July 2021 were included in this longitudinal study (n = 2857). Pooled ordinary least squares (OLS) with fixed‐effects were em-ployed to longitudinally examine economic impacts on racial/ethnic disparities on county‐level COVID‐19 vaccination rates. County‐level per capita income and county‐level unemployment rates were both positively associated with county‐level COVID‐19 vaccination rates across the U.S. How-ever, the associations were divergent in the context of race/ethnicity. Public health efforts to bolster COVID‐19 vaccination rates are encouraged to consider economic factors that are associated with decreases in COVID‐19 vaccination rates.
  • Authors

    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Pubmed Id

  • 28394188
  • Author List

  • Guo Y; Kaniuka AR; Gao J; Sims OT
  • Volume

  • 19
  • Issue

  • 3