Regulation of DJ-1 by Glutaredoxin 1 in Vivo: Implications for Parkinson's Disease

Academic Article


  • Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease worldwide, caused by the degeneration of the dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Mutations in PARK7 (DJ-1) result in early onset autosomal recessive PD, and oxidative modification of DJ-1 has been reported to regulate the protective activity of DJ-1 in vitro. Glutathionylation is a prevalent redox modification of proteins resulting from the disulfide adduction of the glutathione moiety to a reactive cysteine-SH, and glutathionylation of specific proteins has been implicated in regulation of cell viability. Glutaredoxin 1 (Grx1) is the principal deglutathionylating enzyme within cells, and it has been reported to mediate protection of dopaminergic neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans; however many of the functional downstream targets of Grx1 in vivo remain unknown. Previously, DJ-1 protein content was shown to decrease concomitantly with diminution of Grx1 protein content in cell culture of model neurons (SH-SY5Y and Neuro-2A lines). In the current study we aimed to investigate the regulation of DJ-1 by Grx1 in vivo and characterize its glutathionylation in vitro. Here, with Grx-/- mice we provide show that Grx1 regulates protein levels of DJ-1 in vivo. Furthermore, with model neuronal cells (SH-SY5Y) we observed decreased DJ-1 protein content in response to treatment with known glutathionylating agents, and with isolated DJ-1 we identified two distinct sites of glutathionylation. Finally, we found that overexpression of DJ-1 in the dopaminergic neurons partly compensates for the loss of the Grx1 homologue in a C. elegans in vivo model of PD. Therefore, our results reveal a novel redox modification of DJ-1 and suggest a novel regulatory mechanism for DJ-1 content in vivo.
  • Authors

    Published In

  • Biochemistry  Journal
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Johnson WM; Golczak M; Choe K; Curran PL; Miller OG; Yao C; Wang W; Lin J; Milkovic NM; Ray A
  • Start Page

  • 4519
  • End Page

  • 4532
  • Volume

  • 55
  • Issue

  • 32