Purpose: The American Board of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ABMGG) certifying examinations (CEs) are designed to assess relevant basic knowledge, clinical knowledge, and diagnostic skills of board-eligible candidates in primary specialty areas. The ABMGG in-training examinations (ITEs) provide formative feedback regarding knowledge and learning over time and assess readiness to attempt board certification. This study addresses the validity of the ABMGG ITE by evaluating its relationship with performance on CE utilizing established psychometric approaches. Methods: Statistical analysis included bivariate Pearson correlation coefficients and linear regression to evaluate the strength of associations between ITE scores and CE scores. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between ITE scores and the probability of passing each CE. Results: Logistic regression results indicated that ITE scores accounted for 22% to 44% of the variability in CE outcomes. Across 3 certification cycles, for every 1-point increase in ITE scores, the odds ratio for earning a passing score increased by a factor of 1.12 to 1.20 for the general CE, 1.14 to 1.25 for the clinical CE, and 1.12 to 1.20 for the laboratory CEs. Conclusion: The findings show a positive correlation between performance on the ITE examination and performance on and passing the ABMGG CE.