Interpretation and reporting of large regions of homozygosity and suspected consanguinity/uniparental disomy, 2021 revision: A technical standard of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG)

Academic Article


  • Genomic testing, including single-nucleotide variation (formerly single-nucleotide polymorphism)–based chromosomal microarray and exome and genome sequencing, can detect long regions of homozygosity (ROH) within the genome. Genomic testing can also detect possible uniparental disomy (UPD). Platforms that can detect ROH and possible UPD have matured since the initial American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) standard was published in 2013, and the detection of ROH and UPD by these platforms has shown utility in diagnosis of patients with genetic/genomic disorders. The presence of these segments, when distributed across multiple chromosomes, may indicate a familial relationship between the proband's parents. This technical standard describes the detection of possible consanguinity and UPD by genomic testing, as well as the factors confounding the inference of a specific parental relationship or UPD. Current bioethical and legal issues regarding detection and reporting of consanguinity are also discussed.
  • Authors

    Published In

    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Gonzales PR; Andersen EF; Brown TR; Horner VL; Horwitz J; Rehder CW; Rudy NL; Robin NH; Thorland EC; on behalf of the ACMG Laboratory Quality Assurance Committee
  • Start Page

  • 255
  • End Page

  • 261
  • Volume

  • 24
  • Issue

  • 2