Bioactive oxylipins play multiple roles during inflammation and in the immune response, with termination of their actions partly dependent on the activity of yet-to-be characterized dehydrogenases. Here, we report that human microsomal dehydrogenase reductase 9 (DHRS9, also known as SDR9C4 of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily) exhibits a robust oxidative activity toward oxylipins with hydroxyl groups located at carbons C9 and C13 of octadecanoids, C12 and C15 carbons of eicosanoids, and C14 carbon of docosanoids. DHRS9/SDR9C4 is also active toward lipid inflammatory mediator dihydroxylated Leukotriene B4 and pro-resolving mediators such as tri-hydroxylated Resolvin D1 and Lipoxin A4, although notably, with lack of activity on the 15-hydroxyl of prostaglandins. We also found that the SDR enzymes phylogenetically related to DHRS9, i.e., human SDR9C8 (or retinol dehydrogenase 16), the rat SDR9C family member known as retinol dehydrogenase 7, and the mouse ortholog of human DHRS9 display similar activity toward oxylipin substrates. Mice deficient in DHRS9 protein are viable, fertile, and display no apparent phenotype under normal conditions. However, the oxidative activity of microsomal membranes from the skin, lung, and trachea of Dhrs9−/− mice toward 1 μM Leukotriene B4 is 1.7- to 6-fold lower than that of microsomes from wild-type littermates. In addition, the oxidative activity toward 1 μM Resolvin D1 is reduced by about 2.5-fold with DHRS9-null microsomes from the skin and trachea. These results strongly suggest that DHRS9 might play an important role in the metabolism of a wide range of bioactive oxylipins in vivo.