Socioeconomic, Psychosocial, and Clinical Factors Associated with Employment in Women with HIV in the United States: A Correlational Study

Academic Article


  • Employment is a social determinant of health, and women living with HIV (WLWH) are often underemployed. This correlational study examined the socioeconomic, psychosocial, and clinical factors associated with employment among WLWH (n = 1,357) and women at risk for HIV (n = 560). Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to evaluate factors associated with employment status. Employment was associated (p ≤.05) with better socioeconomic status and quality of life (QOL), less tobacco and substance use, and better physical, psychological, and cognitive health. Among WLWH, employment was associated (p ≤.05) with improved adherence to HIV care visits and HIV RNA viral suppression. Using multivariable regression modeling, differences were found between WLWH and women at risk for HIV. Among WLWH, household income, QOL, education, and time providing childcare remained associated with employment in adjusted multivariable analyses (R2=.272, p <.001). A better understanding of the psychosocial and structural factors affecting employment is needed to reduce occupational disparities among WLWH.
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Pubmed Id

  • 27506648
  • Author List

  • Wise JM; Azuero A; Konkle-Parker D; Raper JL; Heaton K; Vance DE; Adimora AA; Wingood G; Golub E; Levin S
  • Start Page

  • 33
  • End Page

  • 44
  • Volume

  • 33
  • Issue

  • 1