Owing to its unique redox properties, cerium oxide (nanoceria) nanoparticles have been shown to confer either radiosensitization or radioprotection to human cells. We investigated nanoce-ria’s ability to modify cellular health and reactive oxygen species (ROS) at various absorbed doses (Gray) of ionizing radiation in MDA-MB231 breast carcinoma cells. We used transmission electron microscopy to visualize the uptake and compartmental localization of nanoceria within cells at various treatment concentrations. The effects on apoptosis and other cellular health parameters were assessed using confocal fluorescence imaging and flow cytometry without and with various absorbed doses of ionizing radiation, along with intracellular ROS levels. Our results showed that nanoceria were taken up into cells mainly by macropinocytosis and segregated into concentration-dependent large aggregates in macropinosomes. Confocal imaging and flow cytometry data showed an overall decrease in apoptotic cell populations in proportion to increasing nanoparticle concentrations. This increase in cellular health was observed with a corresponding reduction in ROS at all tested absorbed doses. Moreover, this effect appeared pronounced at lower doses compared to unirradiated or untreated populations. In conclusion, internalized nanoceria confers radioprotection with a corresponding decrease in ROS in MDA-MB231 cells, and this property confers significant perils and opportunities when utilized in the context of radiotherapy.