MicroRNA-3662 (miR-3662) is minimally expressed in normal human tissues but is highly expressed in all types of cancers, including breast cancer. As determined with The Cancer Genome Atlas dataset, miR-3662 expression is higher in triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) and African American breast cancers than in other breast cancer types. However, the functional role of miR-3662 remains a topic of debate. Here, we found that inhibition or knockout of endogenous, mature miR-3662 in TNBC cells suppresses proliferation and migration in vitro and tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. Functional analysis revealed that, for TNBC cells, knockout of miR-3662 reduces the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Furthermore, using CRISPR-mediated miR-3662 activation and repression, dual-luciferase assays, and miRNA/mRNA immunoprecipitation assays, we established that HMG-box transcription factor 1 (HBP-1), a Wnt/β-catenin signaling inhibitor, is a target of miR-3662 and is most likely responsible for miR-3662-mediated TNBC cell proliferation. Our results suggest that miR-3662 has an oncogenic function in tumor progression and metastasis via an miR-3662-HBP1 axis, regulating the Wnt /β-catenin signaling pathway in TNBC cells. Since miR-3662 expression occurs a tumor-specific manner, it is a promising biomarker and therapeutic target for patients who have TNBCs with dysregulation of miR-3662, especially African Americans.