Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nanometer-sized and membrane-bound vesicles, including exosomes and microvesicles. EVs can deliver bioactive macromolecules such as proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, allowing intercellular communication in multicellular organisms. EVs are secreted by all cell types including stem/progenitor cells. Stem/progenitor cell-derived EVs have been identified to exert immunomodulatory effects on target cells through transferring protein molecules as well as regulatory effects on the phenotype of target cells through fusion with the target cells membrane and/or through direct endocytosis by target cells to transfer nucleic acid substances (such as mRNA, miRNA) to the target cells. In both human and animal models, the use of stem/progenitor cells (such as bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells) has been shown to promote the recovery of kidney diseases such as acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease. Stem/progenitor cell-derived extracellular vesicles are an important mechanism by which stem/progenitor cells might repair kidney injury. Here, this review will discuss the latest advances concerning the application potential of stem/progenitor cell-derived extracellular vesicles in renal diseases, including the aspects as follows: anti-inflammatory, proliferation-promoting and anti-apoptotic, proangiogenic, antifibrotic and renal cancer progression-promoting. Therefore, stem/progenitor cell-derived extracellular vesicles may be a promising treatment tool for renal diseases.