Pseudomonas (P.) aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that causes serious infections and hospital-acquired pneumonia in immunocompromised patients. P. aeruginosa accounts for up to 20% of all cases of hospital-acquired pneumonia, with an attributable mortality rate of ~30–40%. The poor clinical outcome of P. aeruginosa-induced pneumonia is ascribed to its ability to disrupt lung barrier integrity, leading to the development of lung edema and bacteremia. Airway epithelial and endothelial cells are important architecture blocks that protect the lung from invading pathogens. P. aeruginosa produces a number of virulence factors that can modulate barrier function, directly or indirectly, through exploiting cytoskeleton networks and intercellular junctional complexes in eukaryotic cells. This review summarizes the current knowledge on P. aeruginosa virulence factors, their effects on the regulation of the cytoskeletal network and associated components, and molecular mechanisms regulating barrier function in airway epithelial and endothelial cells. A better understanding of these processes will help to lay the foundation for new therapeutic approaches against P. aeruginosa-induced pneumonia.