Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases (NOX) are enzymes that generate superoxide or hydrogen peroxide from molecular oxygen utilizing NADPH as an electron donor. There are seven enzymes in the NOX family: NOX1-5 and dual oxidase (DUOX) 1–2. NOX enzymes in humans play important roles in diverse biological functions and vary in expression from tissue to tissue. Importantly, NOX2 is involved in regulating many aspects of innate and adaptive immunity, including regulation of type I interferons, the inflammasome, phagocytosis, antigen processing and presentation, and cell signaling. DUOX1 and DUOX2 play important roles in innate immune defenses at epithelial barriers. This review discusses the role of NOX enzymes in normal physiological processes as well as in disease. NOX enzymes are important in autoimmune diseases like type 1 diabetes and have also been implicated in acute lung injury caused by infection with SARS-CoV-2. Targeting NOX enzymes directly or through scavenging free radicals may be useful therapies for autoimmunity and acute lung injury where oxidative stress contributes to pathology.