Health Care-Related Economic Burden of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in the United States: Pregnancy-Related and Long-Term Health Consequences

Academic Article


  • Context: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder of reproductive-aged women, affecting approximately 5% to 20% of women of reproductive age. The economic burden of PCOS was previously estimated at approximately $3.7 billion annually in 2020 USD when considering only the costs of the initial diagnosis and of reproductive endocrine morbidities, without considering the costs of pregnancy-related and long-term morbidities. Objective: This study aimed to estimate the excess prevalence and economic burden of pregnancy-related and long-term health morbidities attributable to PCOS. Methods: PubMed, EmBase, and Cochrane Library were searched, and studies were selected in which the diagnosis of PCOS was consistent with the Rotterdam, National Institutes of Health, or Androgen Excess and PCOS Society criteria, or that used electronic medical record diagnosis codes, or diagnosis based on histopathologic sampling. Studies that included an outcome of interest and a control group of non-PCOS patients who were matched or controlled for body mass index were included. Two investigators working independently extracted data on study characteristics and outcomes. Data were pooled using random effects meta-analysis. The I2 statistic was used to assess inter-study heterogeneity. The quality of selected studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Results: The additional total healthcare-related economic burden of PCOS due to pregnancy-related and long-term morbidities in the United States is estimated to be $4.3 billion annually in 2020 USD. Conclusion: Together with our prior analysis, the economic burden of PCOS is estimated at $8 billion annually in 2020 USD.
  • Authors

    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Riestenberg C; Jagasia A; Markovic D; Buyalos RP; Azziz R
  • Start Page

  • 575
  • End Page

  • 585
  • Volume

  • 107
  • Issue

  • 2