Background: Current imaging methods for prediction of complete margin resection (R0) in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are not reliable. Purpose: To investigate whether tumor-related and perivascular CT radiomic features improve preoperative assessment of arterial involvement in patients with surgically proven PDAC. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study included consecutive patients with PDAC who underwent surgery after preoperative CT between 2012 and 2019. A three-dimensional segmentation of PDAC and perivascular tissue surrounding the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) was performed on preoperative CT images with radiomic features extracted to characterize morphology, intensity, texture, and task-based spatial information. The reference standard was the pathologic SMA margin status of the surgical sample: SMA involved (tumor cells >1 mm from margin) versus SMA not involved (tumor cells .1 mm from margin). The preoperative assessment of SMA involvement by a fellowship-trained radiologist in multidisciplinary consensus was the comparison. High reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.7) and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test were used to select features included in the logistic regression model. Results: A total of 194 patients (median age, 66 years; interquartile range, 60-71 years; age range, 36-85 years; 99 men) were evaluated. Aside from surgery, 148 patients underwent neoadjuvant therapy. A total of 141 patients' samples did not involve SMA, whereas 53 involved SMA. A total of 1695 CT radiomic features were extracted. The model with five features (maximum hugging angle, maximum diameter, logarithm robust mean absolute deviation, minimum distance, square gray level co-occurrence matrix correlation) showed a better performance compared with the radiologist assessment (model vs radiologist area under the curve, 0.71 [95% CI: 0.62, 0.79] vs 0.54 [95% CI: 0.50, 0.59]; P ,<.001). The model showed a sensitivity of 62% (33 of 53 patients) (95% CI: 51, 77) and a specificity of 77% (108 of 141 patients) (95% CI: 60, 84). Conclusion: A model based on tumor-related and perivascular CT radiomic features improved the detection of superior mesenteric artery involvement in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.