Skeletal muscle is fundamentally important for quality of life. Deterioration of skeletal muscle, such as that observed with advancing age, chronic disease, and dystrophies, is associated with metabolic and functional decline. Muscle stem/progenitor cells promote the maintenance of skeletal muscle composition (balance of muscle mass, fat, and fibrotic tissues) and are essential for the regenerative response to skeletal muscle damage. It is increasing recognized that nutrient and metabolic determinants of stem/progenitor cell function exist and are potential therapeutic targets to improve regenerative outcomes and muscle health. This review will focus on current understanding as well as key gaps in knowledge and challenges around identifying and understanding nutrient and metabolic determinants of skeletal muscle regeneration.