Aims: To determine the prevalence and incidence of AF among HF subtypes in a biracial community-based cohort. Methods: We studied 6496 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Community study (mean age, 75.8 ± 5.3, 59% women, 23% black) who attended the 2011–2013 visit. HF was identified from physician adjudicated diagnosis, hospital discharges, and self-report. HF subtypes were based on echocardiography. A left ventricular ejection fraction <40% represents HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), 40%–49% for HF with midrange ejection fraction (HFmEF), and ≥ 50% for HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). AF was ascertained through 2017 from study electrocardiograms, hospital discharges, and death certificates. Confounder-adjusted logistic regression and Cox models were used to estimate associations of HF subtype with prevalent and incident AF. Results: Among eligible participants, 393 had HF (HFpEF = 232, HFmEF = 41, HFrEF = 35 and unclassified HF = 85) and 735 had AF. Compared to those without HF, all HF subtypes were more likely to have prevalent AF [odds ratio (95% confidence interval (CI)) 7.4 (5.6–9.9) for HFpEF, 8.1 (4.3–15.3) for HFmEF, 10.0 (5.0–20.2) for HFrEF, 8.8 (5.6–14.0) for unclassified HF]. Among participants without AF at baseline (n = 5761), 610 of them developed AF. Prevalent HF was associated with increased risk of AF [hazard ratio (95%CI) 2.3 (1.6–3.2) for HFpEF, 5.0 (2.7–9.3) for HFmEF, 3.5 (1.7–7.6) for HFrEF, 1.9 (0.9–3.7) for unclassified HF]. Conclusion: AF and HF frequently co-occur, with small differences by HF subtype, underscoring the importance of understanding the interplay of these two epidemics and evaluating shared preventive and therapeutic strategies.