This study examined possible cognitive correlates of hormonal neuroprotection following traumatic brain injury (TBI) using archival neuropsychological findings for 1563 individuals undergoing acute TBI rehabilitation between 1989 and 2002. Presumed age of menopause was based on the STRAW (Stages of Reproductive Aging) staging system (Soules, 2005; Soules et al., 2001) and general linear model (GLM) analysis of performance on neuropsychological testing by participants across gender and age groups (25-34, 35-44, 45-54, and 55-64) was performed. Hypotheses were (1) women with TBI in the oldest age group would have lower scores on neuropsychological tests and functional outcome measures than women in the younger groups, and (2) men in the oldest age group would have higher scores than women of the same age group. Analyses revealed that oldest females had significantly worse Trails B and SDMT written and oral scores than the youngest females. In addition, oldest females had significantly better Trails B, Rey AVLT and SDMT written scores than the oldest males. Possible cohort exposure to hormone replacement therapy, unknown hormonal status at time of testing, and sample-specific injury characteristics may have contributed to these findings. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.