A 6-month-old female is described who presented with severe idiopathic macromastia. The breast enlargement began at 2 months of age and progressed such that subtotal mastectomies were necessary at 23 months. Extensive hormonal evaluation prior to surgery revealed no evidence of estrogenization or precocious puberty. There was no galactorrhea. A breast biopsy showed immature mammary tissue. In vitro analysis of the patient's serum using a mouse mammary thymidine incorporation assay revealed similar mitogenic activity in the patient's serum compared to adult controls. Post surgical follow up of this patient, 3.5 years later, has revealed no breast enlargement, precocious sexual development, or growth acceleration. Of interest, however, she has manifested an idiopathic degenerative neurologic condition characterized by psychomotor delay, ataxia, and seizures. Remarkably, hormone studies at age 5.5 years showed an exaggerated gonadotrophin response to intravenous gonadotrophin releasing hormone and prepubertal estrogen levels. While this case may represent an extraordinary example of idiopathic premature thelarche, the severe nature of this infant's macromastia in association with neurologic dysfunction and increased gonadotrophins suggests that central nervous system factors were etiologic. © 1991 Springer-Verlag.