Treatment of cancer cells exemplifies a difficult test in the light of challenges associated with the nature of cancer cells and the severe side effects too. After making a large number of trials using both traditional and advanced therapies (immunotherapy and hormone therapy), approaches to design new therapies have reached a saturation level. However, nanotechnology-based approaches exhibit higher efficacy and great potential to bypass many of such therapeutic limitations. Because of their higher target specificity, the use of nanoparticles offers incredible potential in cancer therapeutics. Mitochondria, acting as a factory of energy production in cells, reveal an important role in the death as well as the survival of cells. Because of its significant involvement in the proliferation of cancer cells, it is being regarded as an important target for cancer therapeutics. Numerous studies reveal that nanotechnology-based approaches to directly target the mitochondria may help in improving the survival rate of cancer patients. In the current study, we have detailed the significance of mitochondria in the development of cancer phenotype, as well as indicated it as the potential targets for cancer therapy. Our study further highlights the importance of different nanoparticle-based approaches to target mitochondria of cancer cells and the associated outcomes of different studies. Though, nanotechnology-based approaches to target mitochondria of cancer cells demonstrate a potential and efficient way in cancer therapeutics. Yet, further study is needed to overcome the linked limitations.