OBJECTIVES: Optimal stent deployment by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) improves outcome, but it can only be achieved in 50% of patients. We investigated the feasibility and effect of a new method of stent optimization on optimal stent deployment. METHODS: IVUS analyses of 168 coronary segments were performed after angiography-guided stenting (AGS) and stent optimization in 29 patients (30 lesions). Minimum stent area (MSA), stent volume index (SVI), lumen area, external elastic membrane (EEM), and plaque burden (PB) were measured. Stent optimization included post-stent dilation with a balloon sized by high-definition (HD)-IVUS to the distal reference EEM diameter for stent underexpansion or malapposition, and stenting of PB >50% or edge dissection. RESULTS: After AGS, stent deployment was suboptimal in 77% of patients. After stent optimization, MSA and SVI were significantly larger than AGS. Adequate stent expansion - defined as MSA ≥5.4 mm² or ≥90% of distal reference lumen area - was significantly higher after stent optimization vs AGS (87% vs 56%, respectively; P=.02). Optimal stent deployment - a composite of adequate stent expansion, no malapposition, PB <50% at the stent edges, and no edge dissection - was markedly higher after stent optimization vs AGS (87% vs 35%, respectively; P<.01). CONCLUSION: After stent deployment and postdilation, stent results were suboptimal in two-thirds of patients. This simple online stent optimization by HD-IVUS was feasible and resulted in optimal stent deployment in the majority of patients. Randomized studies are warranted to compare the rate of optimal stent deployment and outcomes of this strategy vs other techniques.