Twenty-four named Idd loci that contribute to the development of autoimmune diabetes in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse have been mapped by linkage and congenic analysis. Previously, meta-analysis of genome-wide linkage scans supported the existence of a locus for susceptibility to autoimmune phenotypes on rodent Chromosome (Chr) 18, in a position orthologous to the human type 1 diabetes susceptibility locus IDDM6 (human Chr 18q12-q23). However, an autoimmune diabetes susceptibility locus has not previously been reported on mouse Chr 18. In this study, we demonstrate linkage of the majority of mouse Chr 18 to diabetes in a (ABH x NOD)F1 x NOD backcross. Congenic analysis, introgressing at least 92% of Biozzi ABH Chr 18 onto the NOD background, confirmed the presence of a diabetes locus. The chromosome substitution strain (NOD,ABH-Chr18) had reduced diabetes incidence compared with NOD mice (P < 0.0001). We have named the Chr 18 diabetes locus Idd21.