American College of Rheumatology Guidance for COVID-19 Vaccination in Patients With Rheumatic and Musculoskeletal Diseases: Version 2.

Academic Article


  • OBJECTIVE: To provide guidance to rheumatology providers on the use of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines for patients with rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMDs). METHODS: A task force was assembled that included 9 rheumatologists/immunologists, 2 infectious disease specialists, and 2 public health physicians. After agreeing on scoping questions, an evidence report was created that summarized the published literature and publicly available data regarding COVID-19 vaccine efficacy and safety, as well as literature for other vaccines in RMD patients. Task force members rated their agreement with draft consensus statements on a 9-point numerical scoring system, using a modified Delphi process and the RAND/University of California Los Angeles Appropriateness Method, with refinement and iteration over 2 sessions. Consensus was determined based on the distribution of ratings. RESULTS: Despite a paucity of direct evidence, 74 draft guidance statements were developed by the task force and agreed upon with consensus to provide guidance for use of the COVID-19 vaccines in RMD patients and to offer recommendations regarding the use and timing of immunomodulatory therapies around the time of vaccination. CONCLUSION: These guidance statements, made in the context of limited clinical data, are intended to provide direction to rheumatology health care providers on how to best use COVID-19 vaccines and to facilitate implementation of vaccination strategies for RMD patients.
  • Published In


  • Academies and Institutes, Advisory Committees, COVID-19, COVID-19 Vaccines, Consensus, Delphi Technique, Humans, Immunologic Factors, Musculoskeletal Diseases, Practice Guidelines as Topic, Rheumatic Diseases, Rheumatology, SARS-CoV-2, United States
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Pubmed Id

  • 26308346
  • Author List

  • Curtis JR; Johnson SR; Anthony DD; Arasaratnam RJ; Baden LR; Bass AR; Calabrese C; Gravallese EM; Harpaz R; Kroger A
  • Start Page

  • e30
  • End Page

  • e45
  • Volume

  • 73
  • Issue

  • 8