Reactive oxygen species (ROS) derived from NADPH oxidases (NOX) plays an essential role in advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-induced diabetic vascular endothelial dysfunction. Peroxidasin (PXDN, VPO1) is one member of peroxidases family that catalyzes hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to hypochlorous acid (HOCl). This present study aimed to elucidate the role of PXDN in promoting vascular endothelial dysfunction induced by AGEs in diabetes mellitus. We found that, compared to non-diabetic (db/m) mice, PXDN expression was notably increased in db/db mice with impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation. Knockdown of PXDN in vivo through tail vein injection of siRNA restored the impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation function of db/db mice which is accompanied with up-regulation of eNOS Ser1177 phosphorylation and NO production. AGEs significantly elevated expression of PXDN and 3-Cl-Tyr, but decreased phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS and NO release in HUVECs. All these effects induced by AGEs were remarkable alleviated by silencing PXDN with small interfering RNAs. In addition, HOCl treatment alone as well as HOCl added with Akt inhibitor MK2206 inhibited phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS, reducing NO production. More importantly,AGEs-induced up-regulation of PXDN and 3-Cl-Tyr with endothelial dysfunction were transformed by NOX2 silencing and H2O2 scavengers. Thus, these results support the conclusion that PXDN promotes AGEs-induced diabetic vascular endothelial dysfunction by attenuating eNOS phosphorylation at Ser1177 via NOX2/HOCl/Akt pathway.