Background. Breast cancer accounts for the largest proportion of female cancer deaths and new cases in New South Wales (NSW). Biennial screening is recommended for women aged 50-69 years. Objectives were to (1) identify associations between beliefs and knowledge about breast cancer and mammography, socioeconomic (SES) indicators, and health-related factors, and having a mammogram (a) ever and (b) within the last 2 years; and (2) describe utilization of mammography. Methods. 2974 women aged 50-69 years selected from the BreastScreen NSW (BSNSW) database and the NSW Electoral Roll were administered a structured telephone survey. Associations were assessed using weighted Chi squares and age-adjusted odds ratios from logistic regression with 95% confidence intervals. Results. Strong positive associations were found between age, married/de facto relationship, knowledge about and belief in the benefits of screening, indicators of health status and service utilization, and whether women had had a mammogram or had one within the recommended period. SES was weakly associated with regularity of mammography. Most respondents (97.4%) reported having had at least one mammogram. Conclusions. Specific aspects of knowledge and beliefs about mammograms and individual health-related factors would be important components of initiatives to encourage initial and repeat screening in the targeted age group. © 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.