Background: Immune thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (iTTP) is a potentially fatal thrombotic microangiopathy, resulting from a severe deficiency of plasma ADAMTS-13 (A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase with ThromboSpondin type 1 motif, member 13) activity. IgG-type autoantibodies are primarily responsible for the inhibition of plasma ADAMTS-13 activity. However, the mechanism underlying autoantibody-mediated inhibition is not fully understood. Objective: The purpose of the present study is to determine the role of IgG autoantibodies against various carboxyl-terminal domains of ADAMTS-13 in regulating ADAMTS-13 activity and its inhibition. Method: Various human monoclonal antibodies isolated by phage display, recombinant protein expression and purification, and biochemical analyses were employed for the study. Results: Our results demonstrate for the first time that a human monoclonal antibody fragment, the single chain fragment of the variable region (scFv) isolated from a patient with acute iTTP that binds the distal carboxyl-terminus of ADAMTS-13, is able to activate ADAMTS-13 and increase the proteolytic cleavage of a FRETS-VWF73 substrate; moreover, binding of such a human monoclonal antibody against the carboxyl-terminus of ADAMTS-13 to plasma ADAMTS-13 appears to modulate inhibition by another human monoclonal antibody (i.e., scFv4-20), also isolated from an iTTP patient, that targets the spacer domain of ADAMTS-13. These results provide new insights into our understanding of the pathogenesis of iTTP.