Cellular metabolic rates in the kidney are critical for maintaining normal renal function. In a hypoxic milieu, cells rely on glycolysis to meet energy needs, resulting in the generation of pyruvate and NADH. In the absence of oxidative phosphorylation, the continuation of glycolysis is dependent on the regeneration of NAD from NADH accompanied by the fermentation of pyruvate to lactate. This reaction is catalyzed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoform A (LDHA), whereas LDH isoform B (LDHB) catalyzes the opposite reaction. LDH is widely used as a potential injury marker as it is released from damaged cells into the urine and serum; however, the precise isoform-specific cellular localization of the enzyme along the nephron has not been characterized. By combining immunohistochemistry results and single-cell RNA-sequencing data on healthy mouse kidneys, we identified that LDHA is primarily expressed in proximal segments, whereas LDHB is expressed in the distal parts of the nephron. In vitro experiments in mouse and human renal proximal tubule cells showed an increase in LDHA following hypoxia with no change in LDHB. Using immunofluorescence, we observed that the overall expression of both LDHA and LDHB proteins decreased following renal ischemia-reperfusion injury as well as in the adenine-diet-induced model of chronic kidney disease. Single-nucleus RNAsequencing analyses of kidneys following ischemia-reperfusion injury revealed a significant decline in the number of cells expressing detectable levels of Ldha and Ldhb; however, cells that were positive showed increased average expression postinjury, which subsided during the recovery phase. These data provide information on the cell-specific expression of LDHA and LDHB in the normal kidney as well as following acute and chronic kidney disease.