Prevalence and predictors of abnormal cardiovascular responses to exercise testing among individuals with type 2 diabetes: the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) study.

Academic Article


  • OBJECTIVE: We examined maximal graded exercise test (GXT) results in 5,783 overweight/obese men and women, aged 45-76 years, with type 2 diabetes, who were entering the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) study, to determine the prevalence and correlates of exercise-induced cardiac abnormalities. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Participants underwent symptom-limited maximal GXTs. Questionnaires and physical examinations were used to determine demographic, anthropometric, metabolic, and health status predictors of abnormal GXT results, which were defined as an ST segment depression > or =1.0 mm, ventricular arrhythmia, angina pectoris, poor postexercise heart rate recovery (<22 bpm reduction 2 min after exercise), or maximal exercise capacity less than 5.0 METs. Systolic blood pressure response to exercise was examined as a continuous variable, without a threshold to define abnormality. RESULTS: Exercise-induced abnormalities were present in 1,303 (22.5%) participants, of which 693 (12.0%) consisted of impaired exercise capacity. ST segment depression occurred in 440 (7.6%), abnormal heart rate recovery in 206 (5.0%), angina in 63 (1.1%), and arrhythmia in 41 (0.7%). Of potential predictors, only greater age was associated with increased prevalence of all abnormalities. Other predictors were associated with some, but not all, abnormalities. Systolic blood pressure response decreased with greater age, duration of diabetes, and history of cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS: We found a high rate of abnormal GXT results despite careful screening for cardiovascular disease symptoms. In this cohort of overweight and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes, greater age most consistently predicted abnormal GXT. Long-term follow-up of these participants will show whether these abnormalities are clinically significant.
  • Authors

    Published In

  • Diabetes Care  Journal
  • Keywords

  • Aged, Cardiovascular Diseases, Cardiovascular System, Cross-Sectional Studies, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, Exercise Test, Female, Humans, Male, Middle Aged
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Curtis JM; Horton ES; Bahnson J; Gregg EW; Jakicic JM; Regensteiner JG; Ribisl PM; Soberman JE; Stewart KJ; Espeland MA
  • Start Page

  • 901
  • End Page

  • 907
  • Volume

  • 33
  • Issue

  • 4