Introduction: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is characterized by progressive cyst growth and a loss of functioning renal mass, but a decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and onset of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) occur late in the disease course. There is therefore a great need for early prognostic biomarkers in this disorder. Methods: We measured baseline serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) levels in 192 patients with ADPKD from the Consortium for Radiologic Imaging Studies of PKD (CRISP) cohort that were followed for a median of 13 years and tested the association between FGF23 levels and change over time in height-adjusted total kidney volume (htTKV), GFR, and time to the composite endpoints of ESRD, death, and doubling of serum creatinine. Results: Patients in the highest quartile for baseline FGF23 level had a higher rate of increase in htTKV (0.95% per year, P = 0.0016), and faster rate of decline in GFR (difference of −1.03 ml/min/1.73 m2 per year, P = 0.005) compared with the lowest quartile, after adjusting for other covariates, including htTKV and genotype. The highest quartile of FGF23 was also associated with a substantial increase in risk for the composite endpoint of ESRD, death, or doubling of serum creatinine (hazard ratio [HR] of 2.45 in the fully adjusted model, P = 0.03). Conclusion: FGF23 is a prognostic biomarker for disease progression and clinically important outcomes in ADPKD, and has additive value to established imaging and genetic biomarkers.