Stepwise Tfh cell differentiation revisited: new advances and long-standing questions.

Academic Article


  • T follicular helper (Tfh) cells play an essential role in germinal center formation and the generation of high-affinity antibodies. Studies have proposed that Tfh cell differentiation is a multi-step process. However, it is still not fully understood how a subset of activated CD4+ T cells begin to express CXCR5 during the early stage of the response and, shortly after, how some CXCR5+ precursor Tfh (pre-Tfh) cells enter B cell follicles and differentiate further into germinal center Tfh (GC-Tfh) cells while others have a different fate. In this mini-review, we summarize the recent advances surrounding these two aspects of Tfh cell differentiation and discuss related long-standing questions, including Tfh memory.
  • Authors


  • CD4 memory, CXCR5, TCR, Tfh, germinal center, metabolism, stepwise differentiation, transcription factor
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Schroeder AR; Zhu F; Hu H
  • Volume

  • 10