PIKfyve is essential for the synthesis of phosphatidylinositol-3,5- bisphosphate [PtdIns(3,5)P2] and for the regulation of endolysosomal membrane dynamics in mammals. PtdIns(3,5)P2 deficiency causes neurodegeneration in mice and humans, but the role of PtdIns(3,5)P2 in non-neural tissues is poorly understood. Here we show that platelet-specific ablation of PIKfyve in mice leads to accelerated arterial thrombosis, and, unexpectedly, also to inappropriate inflammatory responses characterized by macrophage accumulation in multiple tissues. These multiorgan defects are attenuated by platelet depletion in vivo, confirming that they reflect a platelet-specific process. PIKfyve ablation in platelets induces defective maturation and excessive storage of lysosomal enzymes that are released upon platelet activation. Impairing lysosome secretion from PIKfyve-null platelets in vivo markedly attenuates the multiorgan defects, suggesting that platelet lysosome secretion contributes to pathogenesis. Our findings identify PIKfyve as an essential regulator for platelet lysosome homeostasis, and demonstrate the contributions of platelet lysosomes to inflammation, arterial thrombosis and macrophage biology. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.