The accuracy of HPV genotyping in isolation and in combination with CD4 and HIV viral load for the identification of HIV-infected women at risk for developing cervical cancer

Academic Article


  • Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype testing has limited utility to identify human immunodeficiency virus-infected (HIV+) women's risk for developing cervical cancer (CC) due to high positivity rate of high-risk (HR) HPVs. We investigated the accuracy of HPV testing in isolation/in combination with CD4 and HIV viral load (VL) to identify HIV+ women at risk for developing CC. Methods: Study consisted of 344 HIV+ women on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), tested for cervical cytology/HPV using the Cobas test and had data on absolute CD4 count and VL measurements. We calculated the positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of HPV testing, pre-, post-cART, and current CD4 and VL in isolation and in combinations to identify those with or free of higher than atypical squamous cells of unknown significance (ASCUS+) or low-grade intraepithelial lesions (LSIL+). Results: HPV test in combination with pre-/post-cART or current CD4 counts and VL had higher PPVs compared to HPV test alone for identifying ASCUS+ or LSIL+. PPV of HPV-CD4 combinations yielded higher PPVs compared to HPV-VL combinations. The NPVs with pre-, post-cART, or current CD4 count and VL in isolation or in combinations were comparable to that of HPV test alone. Conclusions: Our results provide a more accurate tool for managing HIV+ women by combining Cobas HPV with CD4 and VL, especially those who had an undesirable pre-cART CD4 and VL status. Our results also indicate the usefulness of CD4 and VL measurements to identify those at lower risk in the absence of HPV testing.
  • Published In

  • Cancer Medicine  Journal
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Piyathilake CJ; Badiga S; Burkholder GA; Harada S; Raper JL
  • Start Page

  • 1900
  • End Page

  • 1909
  • Volume

  • 10
  • Issue

  • 5