Prenatal mercury (Hg) exposure was determined in a sub-cohort of the Caribbean Consortium for Environmental and Occupational Health’s environmental epidemiologic prospective cohort study of pregnant women living in Suriname’s interior. The associations between Hg exposure, low birth weight (LBW, <2500 g) and preterm birth (PTB, <37 weeks) were explored. Correlation analysis, Fisher’s exact test and logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the associations between maternal hair Hg levels and birth weight, LBW and PTB, and between potential confounders, LBW and PTB, respectively. Among 204 singleton births were 198 live births, five stillbirths and one miscarriage. The mean participant age was 26 years; 15.7% of participants had PTBs and 8.1% delivered a child with a LBW. The median hair Hg level was 3.48 μg/g hair. Low hair Hg exposure, based on lowest tertile < 2.34 μg/g, was associated with LBW (OR = 7.2; 95% CI 1.5–35.6; p = 0.015); this association was independent of maternal age, ethnic background, household income and village location, and no correlation was found between hair Hg and PTB. Young maternal age was associated with PTB (RR = 5.09, 95% CI: 1.92–13.85; p = 0.0004) while maternal age was not associated with hair Hg or LBW. The impact of prenatal Hg exposure on pediatric neurodevelopment is currently being evaluated in the infant sub-cohort.