Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in women. Various nutritional compounds possess anti-carcinogenic properties which may be mediated through their effects on the gut microbiota and its production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) for the prevention of breast cancer. We evaluated the impact of broccoli sprouts (BSp), green tea polyphenols (GTPs) and their combination on the gut microbiota and SCFAs metabolism from the microbiota in Her2/neu transgenic mice that spontaneously develop estrogen receptor-negative [ER(-)] mammary tumors. The mice were grouped based on the dietary treatment: control, BSp, GTPs or their combination from beginning in early life (BE) or life-long from conception (LC). We found that the combination group showed the strongest inhibiting effect on tumor growth volume and a significant increase in tumor latency. BSp treatment was integrally more efficacious than the GTPs group when compared to the control group. There was similar clustering of microbiota of BSp-fed mice with combination-fed mice, and GTPs-fed mice with control-fed mice at pre-tumor in the BE group and at pre-tumor and post-tumor in the LC group. The mice on all dietary treatment groups incurred a significant increase of Adlercreutzia, Lactobacillus genus and Lachnospiraceae, S24-7 family in the both BE and LC groups. We found no change in SCFAs levels in the plasma of BSp-fed, GTPs-fed and combination-fed mice of the BE group.