Background: Intrauterine exposure to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) increases risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Ghrelin and GLP-1 have opposite functions in nutritional homeostasis and are associated with insulin secretion, but it is not known if individuals exposed to GDM exhibit dysregulation in these associations. Objective: Test the hypothesis that children exposed to GDM in utero will exhibit dysregulation among ghrelin, GLP-1, and C-peptide (reflecting insulin secretion). Methods: Data from N = 43 children aged 5 to 10 years were included in this secondary analysis of ghrelin, GLP-1, and C-peptide response to a liquid meal test. Repeated measures mixed model analyses were used to measure associations among hormones. Results: The association of ghrelin and GLP-1 was moderated by GDM group (P <.01), such that ghrelin was inversely associated with GLP-1 in children without GDM exposure, but not for those exposed to GDM. GLP-1 was positively associated with C-peptide in both groups, but the association was stronger in those exposed to GDM (estimate = 1.06 vs 1.01). Conclusions: Differences in the associations among ghrelin, GLP-1, and C-peptide displayed here suggest novel lines of research about whether the regulation of gut hormones and insulin secretion contribute to obesity and risk for T2D in children exposed to GDM.