A high incidence of acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL) in Down syndrome patients implies that chromosome 21 genes have a pivotal role in AMKL development, but the functional contribution of individual genes remains elusive. Here, we report that SON, a chromosome 21-encoded DNA- and RNA-binding protein, inhibits megakaryocytic differentiation by suppressing RUNX1 and the megakaryocytic gene expression program. As megakaryocytic progenitors differentiate, SON expression is drastically reduced, with mature megakaryocytes having the lowest levels. In contrast, AMKL cells express an aberrantly high level of SON, and knockdown of SON induced the onset of megakaryocytic differentiation in AMKL cell lines. Genome-wide transcriptome analyses revealed that SON knockdown turns on the expression of pro-megakaryocytic genes while reducing erythroid gene expression. Mechanistically, SON represses RUNX1 expression by directly binding to the proximal promoter and two enhancer regions, the known +23 kb enhancer and the novel +139 kb enhancer, at the RUNX1 locus to suppress H3K4 methylation. In addition, SON represses the expression of the AP-1 complex subunits JUN, JUNB, and FOSB which are required for late megakaryocytic gene expression. Our findings define SON as a negative regulator of RUNX1 and megakaryocytic differentiation, implicating SON overexpression in impaired differentiation during AMKL development.