The efficacy and safety of citrate mixture vs sodium bicarbonate on urine alkalization in Chinese primary gout patients with benzbromarone: A prospective, randomized controlled study

Academic Article


  • Objectives: To compare the efficacy and safety of citrate mixture and sodium bicarbonate on urine alkalization in gout patients under benzbromarone treatment. Methods: A prospective, randomized, parallel controlled trial was conducted among 200 gout patients in the dedicated gout clinic of the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University. The participants were randomly divided into two groups (1:1), sodium bicarbonate group (3 g/day) and citrate mixture group (7 g/day). All patients were prescribed with 25 mg/day benzbromarone at initiation and maintained at a dose of 50 mg/day. Clinical and biochemical data were collected at each follow-up time point (baseline, weeks 2, 4, 8 and 12). Results: A total of 182 patients completed the 12-week urine alkalization study. The urine pH value of both groups increased significantly from the baseline to the final follow-up time point (sodium bicarbonate group, 5.50-6.00, P < 0.05; citrate mixture group, 5.53-5.93, P < 0.05). While the comparisons regarding urine pH between treatment groups showed no significant differences for each time point. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) dropped significantly after 12 weeks' trial in the sodium bicarbonate group (P < 0.01), while it was comparable between baseline and the last follow-up (P > 0.05) in the citrate mixture group. Results of urine analysis showed that the incident rate of occult blood in the sodium bicarbonate group was higher than that in the citrate mixture group (38 vs 24%, P < 0.05), accompanied by a similar occurrence of kidney stones. After 12-week follow-up, the frequency of twice gout flare in the citrate mixture group was significantly lower than that in sodium bicarbonate group (4 vs 12%, P = 0.037). No treatment-emergent adverse events occurred. Conclusion: The efficacy of citrate mixture on urine alkalization is comparable to sodium bicarbonate under benzbromarone treatment without significant adverse events. Citrate mixture is superior to sodium bicarbonate in lowering the incidence of urine occult blood and the frequency of gout attacks. Trial registration: Registered with ChiCTR (, No. ChiCTR1800018518.
  • Authors

    Published In

  • Rheumatology  Journal
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Xue X; Liu Z; Li X; Lu J; Wang C; Wang X; Ren W; Sun R; Jia Z; Ji X
  • Start Page

  • 2661
  • End Page

  • 2671
  • Volume

  • 60
  • Issue

  • 6