Objects. To investigate the effects of environmental pollutant benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and its metabolite benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE) on human trophoblasts and on murine miscarriages. Methods. The implantation sites, fetus resorption, and abnormal fetuses were studied in pregnant mice treated with different doses of BaP by oral gavage from day 1 to day 10 of gestation. Additionally, apoptosis and related signaling pathway, and the migration and invasion of trophoblasts, were assessed before and after exposure of BPDE in Swan 71 trophoblast cell. Besides, the migration and invasion, and its related signaling pathway, were assessed in villi obtained from women. Results. We observed a concentration-dependent incidence of abnormal murine fetuses, beginning with 0.1 mg/kg BaP; with a BaP concentration of 2 mg/kg, no fetuses developed. Correspondingly, a BPDE concentration-dependent apoptosis of human trophoblasts. Beginning with 0.5 μM BPDE exposure, Bax/Caspase-3 were increased and Bcl-2 decreased. Furthermore, BPDE also inhibited, in a dose-dependent manner, the migration of villous explants from elective abortion women, consistent with the reduced migration of villous explants from women with recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL), and reduced the cell immigration in Swan 71 trophoblasts, in a dose-dependent manner measured by transwell assays. Conclusions. Our study results provide mechanistic insight to the effect of BPDE on trophoblast dysfunction through enhanced cell apoptosis and inhibited migration, providing further experimental evidence to the causative links between BaP exposure and PRL.