PURPOSE. Recent retrospective clinical studies and animal experiments have suggested that cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP) is important in glaucoma, acting through the translaminar pressure (TLP = IOP - CSFP), which directly affects the optic nerve head. In this study, IOP and intracranial pressure (ICP; a surrogate of CSFP) were measured at various body positions to quantify the determinants of TLP. METHODS. We have developed an implantable wireless pressure telemetry system based on a small piezoelectric sensor with low temporal drift. Telemetry transducers were placed in the anterior chamber to measure IOP and in the brain parenchyma at eye height to measure ICP. IOP was calibrated against anterior cannulation manometry, and ICP/CSFP was calibrated against an intraparenchymal Codman ICP Express microsensor. We measured IOP, ICP, and TLP = IOP - ICP continuously at 200 Hz in three male nonhuman primates (NHPs) in three trials; pressures were then averaged for 30 seconds per body position. Relative change of IOP, ICP, and TLP from the supine (baseline) position to the seated, standing, and inverted positions were quantified. RESULTS. TLP changed significantly and instantaneously from the supine to seated (+14 mm Hg), supine to standing (+13 mm Hg) and supine to inverted (-12 mm Hg) positions (P < 0.05). There was no significant TLP change for supine to prone. ICP showed greater relative change than IOP. CONCLUSIONS. TLP change due to body position change is driven more by ICP/CSFP than IOP. IOP, ICP, and TLP variability, coupled with telemetry, should allow us to test the hypotheses that IOP, ICP, or TLP fluctuations contribute independently to glaucoma onset or progression.