Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. At the molecular level, GISTs can be categorized into two groups based on the causative oncogenic mutations. Approximately 85% of GISTs are caused by gain-of-function mutations in the tyrosine kinase receptor KIT or platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA). The remaining GISTs, referred to as wild-type (WT) GISTs, are often deficient in succinate dehydrogenase complex (SDH), a key metabolic enzyme complex in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and electron transport chain. SDH deficiency leads to the accumulation of succinate, a metabolite produced by the TCA cycle. Succinate inhibits α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase family enzymes, which comprise approximately 60 members and regulate key aspects of tumorigenesis such as DNA and histone demethylation, hypoxia responses, and m6A mRNA modification. For this reason, succinate and metabolites with similar structures, such as D-2-hydroxyglutarate and fumarate, are considered oncometabolites. In this article, we review recent advances in the understanding of how metabolic enzyme mutations and oncometabolites drive human cancer with an emphasis on SDH mutations and succinate in WT GISTs.