The vascular access is the lifeline for the hemodialysis patient. Previous national vascular access guidelines have emphasized placement of arteriovenous fistulas in most hemodialysis patients. However, the new Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative guidelines for vascular access, soon to be published, will focus on a patient's end-stage kidney disease “life plan” and take a patient “first” approach. One of the major themes of the new Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative guidelines is selecting the “right access, for the right patient, at the right time, for the right reason”. Given the availability of new advances in biomedical technologies, techniques, and devices in the vascular access field, this shift to a more patient-centered vascular access approach presents unique opportunities to individualize the solutions and care for patients requiring a dialysis vascular access. This review article will address 3 potential areas where there is an unmet need to individualize solutions for dialysis vascular access care: (1) biological approaches to improve vascular access selection and selection of therapies, (2) vascular access care for the post-transplant patient, and (3) vascular access disparities in race, gender, and the elderly patient.