Objective: Surgical site infection (SSI) is an important complication of lower extremity bypass (LEB) and the rate of SSI after LEB varies widely in the existing literature, ranging from 4% to 31%. Prolonged length of stay (LOS) has been implicated in the occurrence of SSI across multiple surgical disciplines. The impact of preoperative LOS in patients with chronic limb-threatening ischemia (CLTI) undergoing LEB is unknown. We examined the association of preoperative LOS on SSI after LEB. Methods: A retrospective analysis of the Society for Vascular Surgery Vascular Quality Initiative Infrainguinal Bypass Registry identified patients undergoing elective LEB for chronic limb-threatening ischemia from 2003 to 2019. Patients undergoing LEB for acute limb ischemia, urgent/emergent procedures, aneurysm, or who had concomitant suprainguinal bypass were excluded. The primary outcome measure was postoperative SSI. Multivariable forward stepwise logistic regression was then performed including all variables with a P value of less than.10 in both matched and unmatched cohorts to evaluate for demographic and perioperative predictors of SSI. Propensity score matching was used to create matched cohorts of patients for each LOS group. Results: A total of 17,883 LEB procedures were selected for inclusion: 0 days (12,362 LEB), 1 to 2 days (1737 LEB), and 3 to 14 days (3784 LEB). Patients with the greatest preoperative LOS were more likely to have vein mapping (0 days preoperative LOS, 66.3%; 1-2 days, 65.2%; 3-14 days, 73.2%; P <.01) or computed tomography angiography/magnetic resonance angiography (0 days, 32.1%; 1-2 days, 34.4%; 3-14 days, 38.4%; P <.01). Patients with 3 or more days of preoperative LOS had longer procedure lengths (0 days, 244 minutes; 1-2 days, 243 minutes; 3-14 days, 255 minutes; P <.01) and were more likely to have completion angiogram (0 days, 27.1%; 1-2 days, 29.5%; 3-14 days, 31.6%; P =.02). Multivariable logistic regression demonstrated that preoperative LOS of 3 to 14 days was associated with increased rate of SSI (odds ratio [OR], 1.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-3.07; P =.01). Transfusion of 3 or more units (OR, 2.87; 95% CI, 1.89-4.36; P <.01) and prolonged procedure length (>220 minutes; OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.26-2.73; P <.01) were also significantly associated with postoperative SSIs. Conclusions: Many factors including preoperative comorbidities and operative complexity covary with preoperative LOS as risk factors for SSI. However, when patients are matched based on comorbidities and factors that would predict overall clinical complexity, preoperative LOS remains important in predicting SSI.